Mangulam Tamil Brahmi engraving in Mangulam, Madurai region, Tamil Nadu, dated to Tamil Sangam period (c. 400 BC to c. 200 AD)
Clarification for Mangulam Tamil Brahmi engraving in Mangulam, Madurai region, Tamil Nadu, dated to Tamil Sangam period (c. 400 BC to c. 200 AD) Tamil
Tamil Brahmi content in the opposite side of the bilingual silver coin of ruler Vashishtiputra Sātakarni (c. Advertisement 160) of Deccan. Fire up: Ujjain/Sātavāhana image, crescented six-curve chaitya slope and stream with Tamil Brahmi script Obv: Bust of lord; Prakrit legend in the Brahmi content
As indicated by Hindu legend, Tamil or in representation structure Tamil Thāi (Mother Tamil) was made by Lord Shiva. Murugan, loved as the Tamil God, alongside sage Agastya, carried it to the people.
The soonest surviving Tamil artistic works and their editorials commend the Pandiyan Kings for the association of since quite a while ago named Tamil Sangams, which explored, created and made alterations in Tamil language. Despite the fact that the name of the language which was created by these Tamil Sangams is referenced as Tamil, the period when the name “Tamil” came to be applied to the language is indistinct, just like the exact historical underpinnings of the name. The most punctual verified utilization of the name is found in Tholkappiyam, which is dated as right on time as late second century BC.Southworth recommends that the name originates from hat miḻ > hat iḻ “self-talk”, or “one’s own speech”. Kamil Zvelebil proposes a derivation of cap iḻ, with hat signifying “self” or “one’s self”, and “- iḻ” having the undertone of “unfurling sound”. On the other hand, he proposes an induction of tamiḻ < hat iḻ < *tav-iḻ < *tak-iḻ, which means in inception “the correct cycle (of speaking)”.
The Tamil Lexicon of University of Madras characterizes “Tamil” as “sweetness”. S. V. Subramanian proposes the signifying “sweet solid”, from cap — “sweet” and il — “sound”.
Among Indian dialects, Tamil has the most antiquated non-Sanskritic Indian literature. Scholars arrange the authenticated history of the language into three periods: Old Tamil (300 BC–AD 700), Middle Tamil (700–1600) and Modern Tamil (1600–present). In November 2007, an uncovering at Quseir-al-Qadim uncovered Egyptian earthenware going back to first century BC with old Tamil Brahmi inscriptions. John Guy expresses that Tamil was the most widely used language for early sea dealers from India.
Fundamental article: Old Tamil language
Old Tamil is the time of the Tamil language traversing the third century BC to the eighth century AD. The most punctual records in Old Tamil are short engravings from between the third and second century BC in caverns and on ceramics. These engravings are written in a variation of the Brahmi content called Tamil-Brahmi. The soonest long content in Old Tamil is the Tolkāppiyam, an early work on Tamil sentence structure and poetics, whose most established layers could be as old as the late second century BC. Many artistic works in Old Tamil have additionally endure. These incorporate a corpus of 2,381 sonnets on the whole known as Sangam writing. These sonnets are normally dated to between the first century BC and fifth century AD.
Primary article: Middle Tamil language
Tamil engravings in Vatteluttu content in stone during Chola period c.1000 AD at Brahadeeswara sanctuary in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu.
The development of Old Tamil into Middle Tamil, which is commonly taken to have been finished by the eighth century, was described by various phonological and linguistic changes. In phonological terms, the most significant movements were the virtual vanishing of the aytam (ஃ), an old phoneme, the blend of the alveolar and dental nasals, and the change of the alveolar plosive into a rhotic. In language, the most significant change was the rise of the current state. The current state advanced out of the action word kil (கில்), signifying “to be conceivable” or “to happen to”. In Old Tamil, this action word was utilized as an angle marker to demonstrate that an activity was micro durative, non-continued or non-enduring, ordinarily in mix with a clock, for example, ṉ (ன்). In Middle Tamil, this use developed into a current state marker – kiṉṟa (கின்ற) – which consolidated the old angle and time markers.
The Nannul remains the standard standardizing language for current abstract Tamil, which in this way keeps on being founded on Middle Tamil of the thirteenth century as opposed to on Modern Tamil. Colloquial communicated in Tamil, conversely, shows various changes. The negative formation of action words, for instance, has dropped out of utilization in Modern Tamil – rather, refutation is communicated either morphologically or syntactically. Modern communicated in Tamil additionally shows various sound changes, specifically, a propensity to bring down high vowels in beginning and average positions, and the vanishing of vowels among plosives and between a plosive and rhotic.
Contact with European dialects influenced composed and communicated in Tamil. Changes in composed Tamil incorporate the utilization of European-style accentuation and the utilization of consonant groups that were not allowed in Middle Tamil. The punctuation of composed Tamil has likewise changed, with the presentation of new aspectual helpers and more unpredictable sentence structures, and with the development of a more unbending word request that takes after the syntactic contention structure of English. Simultaneously, a solid strain of semantic purism rose in the mid twentieth century, coming full circle in the Pure Tamil Movement which called for expulsion of all Sanskritic components from Tamil. It got some help from Dravidian parties. This prompted the substitution of countless Sanskrit loanwords by Tamil reciprocals, however numerous others remain.